Sokho was located in the Shephelah, guarding the Valley of Elah. Situated on a hill on the southern side of the valley, this city could control local east-west traffic between the Coastal Plain and the Hill Country of Judah. The site has not been excavated.
The Philistines camped between the Ela Valley Sokho and Azekah prior to the encounter of David and Goliath. Rehoboam fortified the place. It was one of the cities occupied temporarily by the Philistines in the time of Ahaz. In that period it served as an administrative or storage center, being one of the four cities named on the la-melekh stamps of the Judean monarchy.
A Mishnaic Rabbi Antigonus of Sokho, mentioned in Ethics of the Fathers, likely came from the Hebron-region town. Rabbi Levi Sukia, of the first generation of Amoraim, also came from Sokho.
In Byzantine times, Eusebius described Sokho (Σοκχωθ) as a double village at the ninth milestone between Eleutheropolis (Bet Guvrin) and Jerusalem , a center for pottery manufacture. The Madaba Map also depicts Sokho (Σωκω).